Human body is one of the greatest machines that are present today in the universe. It comprises of numerous different parts such as bones, body flesh, veins, nerves, body organs and last but not least and also most important one, from where all the things get started, the body cells. You are all aware that every human body has 206 bones, five senses, approximately four liters of blood etc. But have you ever given a thought that how many cells are in the human body? What are their types? In this article we will enlighten you about the major cells and their functions. But before that let’s have a look on what is a cell and what are the things present inside a cell.
What Is A Cell?
The technical definition of a cell is that they are the building blocks of all the living things. All the cells provide a basic structure for the human body. The primary role of the cells is to take out the nutrients from the food, convert the gathered nutrients to energy and with the help of energy, perform the specified functions through the various organs. There are various cells that possess the hereditary material of the body and keep their copies.
As our body is made up of numerous parts, similarly, the cells are made up of different parts, and every part has its specific function. Few of the parts of a cell are known as organelles. These organelles have specialized structure and perform some of the important tasks inside the cells. Let’s look at the various important parts inside a human cell.
It is primarily a network of very long fibers and makes the structural framework of every cell. Cytoskeleton performs numerous many functions inside the cell that are critical. Some of these critical processes include division of the cell, finding the shape of the cell and also help in moving the cells. Moreover, it also allows tracking the system that directs the movement of organelles and some other substances inside the cells.
Cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid, also known as cytosol, and also some of the other structures that surround the nucleus of the cells. All these things are present inside the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
The main aim of the Endoplasmic Reticulum or only ER is to help in the processing of the molecules that are created by the cells. It also helps in transporting of these molecules to their specific destinations, whether it is inside or outside of the cell.
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
You can also call them as the recycling center of our cells. The main task of these organelles is to digest the outside bacteria that sometimes invade the walls of the cell and enters. They also free the cells from the toxic substances and recycle the components of the cell that are worn out.
Primarily, mitochondria are the organelles that are the complex one. Their work is to transform the energy gathered from the food into such a form that can be utilized by the cell for its proper functioning. Mitochondria have their genetic material, and with the help of this genetic material, they distinguish themselves from DNA inside the nucleus and also make the copies of themselves.
The lining that is outside of the cell is known as the plasma membrane. With the help of this plasma membrane, the cell can separate itself from the outside environment and also allows other materials to leave or enter the cell.
You can also call the nucleus as the command center of every cell. It is the nucleus that sends all the directions to the cell to grow, divide, mature or die. It is also the home of DNAs (Deoxyribonucleic acid), which is the hereditary material of the cell. A membrane called the nuclear membrane surrounds the nucleus to protect the DNA and also to separate the nucleus from the rest of the cell.
The organelles that help in processing of the genetic instructions of the cells to create proteins are known as Ribosomes. These organelles have the freedom to float inside the cytoplasm, or they can also remain connected to the ER or endoplasmic reticulum.
Types Of Cells
There are numerous types of cells that are present inside the human body. Let’s have a look on some of the major cells and their functions.
The nerve cells are present all over the body, and can be of up to one meter long. One unique thing about the nerve cells is that they never multiply in a human’s lifetime and have branching at either end. Most of the nerve cells are found in the spinal cord and also in the brain and form the nervous tissue.
The cartilage cells and the bone cells are similar in their configuration, but the only difference in them is that the cartilage cells are surrounded by a material that is loose and flexible. They are primarily present in our ear bones. This enables the ears to fold, bend and move freely between our spinal bones, ribs, and joints, etc.
Bone cells are the toughest cells inside our body. They consist mainly of calcium and phosphate that are bounding them together. The main job of the bone cells is to give support, strength and frame-work to our body and protect the vital organs of our body by enclosing them inside the structure of bones, also known as our skeletal system.
How Many Cells In Our Body?
You will be amazed to know that in a normal human body, there are at least 100 000 billion cells present at a time. The more interesting fact is that they all have originated from a single cell, also known as the fertilized egg cell.